Archive for décembre 2012

Whole leaf artemisia annua antimalarial tablets

décembre 27, 2012

revicipetablets

Artemisia absinthium: a forgotten antimalarial

décembre 24, 2012

Artemisia afra, Artemisia herba alba, Artemisia sieberi, Artemisia absinthium have been and are still widely used as antimalarials. Some of them contain molecules like luteolin, santonin or nerolidol which have properties equivalent to quinine. They all contain a broad range of essential oils, polyphenols, coumarins, polysaccharides, saponins which differ from species to species. But the question remains : what could be a common constituent which raises the antimalarial efficiency of these plants above others.

It appears that α-thujone and β-thujone represent the major constituent of all these artemisia varieties, sometimes more than 50% of the total essential oil.

Evidence that thujone is the active antimalarial molecule in many artemisia species is confirmed in a recent paper from the Pasteur Institute of Iran. Artemisia absinthium extract has an antiplasmodial IC50 of 0.19 µg/mL vs 0.40 for chloroquine . But Artemisia dracunculus which contains no thujone has no noticeable antimalarial activity ( >200 µg/mL). Artemisia vulgaris and Artemisia khorassanica contain small quantities of thujone and show moderate antiplasmodial activities.

A recent finding of the Universities of Leiden and Liege supports the thujone hypothesis. The apolar fractions of both Artemisia afra and Artemisia annua showed activity against P. falciparum while activity was only found in the tea infusion of Artemisia annua. Thujone is insoluble in water. To take full advantage of the essential oil thujone which is not water soluble, it is thus preferable to administer the plant, not in the form of an infusion, but as dry powder in capsules or to work with a chloroform extract.

Other plants like wild sage (Salvia officinalis) contain large amounts of thujone and are potential anti-malarial drugs. Their essential oils have excellent anti-inflammatory properties .

The University of Al Quds, Jerusalem, has shown that thujone prevents the formation of β-hematin (hemozoin), which is also the key mechanism for quinine. Thujone also leads to an augmentation of the humoral and cell mediated immune responses. The molecule is well known for its bactericidal and vermicidal properties. This may explain why Artemisia herba alba is extensively used in Algeria against the severe inflammatory disease Adamiantides-Behçet .The University of Leiden has found remarkable anti-HIV activity for Artemisia afra . A German research team found that the administration of Artemisia absinthium powdered herbal substance in the form of 500 mg capsules for the treatment of Crohn’s disease, at week 10, 65% of the patients were almost free of the disease symptoms compared to none in the placebo group .

The first study on the antimalarial effect of Artemisia absinthium was published in 1990 . The highest suppression (96%) of Plasmodium berghei infected mice was observed with the ethanolic extract given orally in a concentration of 74 mg/kg. Antiplasmodial effects of Artemisia absinthium have also been noticed by a research group in Cuba in cooperation with the University of Antwerpen. Already in 2003 it had been confirmed that lipophilic extracts from Artemisia afra were more active than the extracts of 8 other plants from Zimbabwe .
Several of these research groups have investigated potential toxicities of thujone and found none or little. The product even has hepatoprotective properties .

Thujone which was banned in Europe for hundred years is now again available since 10 years, as food additive, in legal quantities. History has ups and downs. The French after the conquest of Algiers in 1830 used the plant as antimalarial for hundred years, eventually based on Artemisia herba alba which is endemic in the Maghreb. All these plants containing thujone make an exponential come-back,from the Artemisia absinthium of our grand-mothers to Artemisia afra. Until the year 2000 only 3 scientific papers had been published concerning this plant; over the last ten years more than 100.

GA Noqueira de Melo et al., J of Med Plants Res., 6(35) 2112, 4934-39
M Akkawi et al., Malaria Journal, 2012, 11 (Suppl1), p3.
KS Siveen et al., International Immunopharmacogy, o6, 2011, 1967-75.
D Messaoudene et al., Journal of Inflammation, 2011, 8 :35
A.Lubbe, I Seibert, T Klimhait, Fr van der Kooy, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Accepted 15 Mar 2012.
B Omer et al., Phytomedicine, 14 (2007) 87-95
M.M. Zahar et al Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1990 Sep.30 (2), 223-6.
Aymé Fernández-Calienes Valdés et al., Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Vol. 103(6): 615-618, September 2008 615

C Kraft et al., Phytotherapy Research, 17,2, 2003, 123-128
N Nahrevanian et al., Iranian J Parasitol 5,1, 2010, 6-19.

The surprising efficiency of Artemisia annua powder capsules

décembre 18, 2012

Clinical Study on Artemisia annua capsules

Preliminary results of an experience of prevention and treatment of malaria

Michel ONIMUS , Sophie CARTERON , Pierre LUTGEN
Correspondence should be addressed to Michel Onimus, monimus@wanadoo.fr

Abstract

The administration of powdered leaves of Artemisia annua, used as preventive treatment of malaria attack, was evaluated in 25 patients, most of them children, and all of them operated for orthopaedic disorder. The duration of the treatment was 36 hours in 11 patients and 60 hours in 14 patients. The average parasitemia was reduced from 432 parasites/ml to 165 parasites/ml, i.e. 62% improvement, without significant difference according to the duration of the treatment. The efficacy was similar whatever the age and the weight of the patient. These results were obtained with a very low amount of powder (400 to 500 mg per day), and with very low quantity of artemisinin (0, 4 to 0, 5 mg per day). It is concluded that the Artemisia annua powder is apparently more effective than the tea preparation, but more costly and maybe not routinely available. The tea preparation, inexpensive and available everywhere, is still the best method for prevention and treatment of malaria on a large scale and should be preferred in the poorest countries.

1. Introduction

During numerous surgical interventions in pediatric orthopaedics conducted with crippled children in Central African Republic, we have frequently been confronted with post-operative high temperatures, occurring the day following or two days after the surgery, which were attributed to malaria and were treated with Quinine salts administration (Quinimax). During a recent session, we investigated the presence of Plasmodium falciparum in the blood of some asymptomatic children, with a positive result in all investigated cases. The Artemisia annua treatment which we administered may explain the absence of malaria attack occurring post-operatively and the mitigating of the surgical trauma in a child with chronic positive parasitemia.
Artemisia annua administered as tea is known since centuries for its antimalarial effect, due to artemisinin as well as numerous other flavonoids and constituents. Although easy to prepare, and moreover inexpensive, the tea preparation was considered as not perfectly adapted and difficult to use in a surgical context, and we turned towards administration of powdered leaves of Artemisia annua in capsules, which were used as preventive treatment of malaria attack during the immediate post-operative period in operated children. The administration of powdered leaves also presents the advantage to deliver the « totum », i.e. the whole set of molecules present in the plant, synergically acting with artemisinin. A Chinese research team (1) had already found in 1992 that gelatine capsules of Artemisia annua extract used in pharmacological and clinical trials on mice gave a cure rate of 100% for Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium vivax infections. In recent years other medical teams (Saint-Hillier, Klabes, Tumaini) in Tanzania, Mali, Burundi, DRCongo have been working with Artemisia annua capsules on adults and children with excellent results and no side effects. A surprising high level of transfer of artemisinin into the bloodstream from the plant material vs. the pure drug had already been noticed by P.Weathers (2).
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this preventive treatment. It was conducted during a surgical session in Central African Republic in November 2012.

2. Material and Methods

2.1. Twenty five patients were included in the study: 22 children with an average age of 8 years and 4 months (1 – 16) and 3 adults with an average age of 27 years (18 – 40). All patients were operated for an orthopaedic problem (table I). Besides the Plasmodium falciparum investigations, the preoperative investigation included detection of digestive parasites (positive in all cases) and HIV test (negative in all cases except an adult).

2.2. Protocol: The Artemisia annua used was the Luxembourg variety, harvested at the site of Walferdange in 2009, dried in industrial equipment at 35°C and covered by the Phytosanitary Certificate No EC/LU/11773.
The Plasmodium falciparum blood concentration was investigated twice: once before starting the preventive treatment, and once at J+2, i.e. on the morning of the second post-operative day. The duration of the treatment was as following:
In 14 cases the treatment was started on the day before the surgery (J-1): every patient received 2 capsules per day during 2 and half days (2 capsules on evening at J-1, 2 capsules on evening at J+0, 1 capsule on morning and evening at J+1 and 1 capsule on the morning at J+2). In these cases the treatment was administered during 60 hours.
In 11 cases, because of purely logistical reasons (the patient was absent the day before the surgery when the capsules were distributed), the treatment started at J+0: these 11 patients received 2 capsules on evening at J+0, 1 capsule on morning and on evening at J+1 and 1 capsule on the morning at J+2. In these cases the treatment was administered during 36 hours.
For the younger patients (less than 3 years of age) the capsules were opened and the powder was administered with milk or mashed manioc. Capsules n°1 were used for patients with weight under 20 kg; all other patients received capsules n°0.

3. Results :
3.1. Biological results (Table I):
The average parasitemia before starting the treatment was 432 parasites/ml of Plasmodium falciparum (160 – 910). The average parasitemia at the end of the treatment was 165 parasites/ml (0-320), corresponding to an average improvement of 62%; one patient (#18) showed no decline in parasitemia.
For the 11 patients treated during 36 hours, the parasitemia decreased from 395 to 142, i.e. a 64% (23% – 100%) improvement. For the 14 patients treated during 60 hours, the parasitemia decreased from 461 to 183, i.e. a 60 % (<14% – 85%) improvement.

3.2. Clinical results:

The treatment was perfectly tolerated in all cases. No digestive intolerance was observed. No febrile reaction was observed. The post operative course was considered as uneventful in all cases. The postoperative oedema, frequently observed especially after postero-medial release in congenital club foot was unusually moderate.

Table I: The series and the results observed

Age
Diagnosis
Pf Parasitemia before treatment
J-1 J+0 J+1 J+2 gelules-capsules
Pf Parasitemia after treatment
% improvement

1 Y. M. 7 4ceps retraction 350 2 gel. 2 gel. 2 gel. 1 gel. 80 77%
2 M. A. 22 burn (skin graft) 400 2 gel. 2 gel. 2 gel. 1 gel. 120 70%
3 B. R. 40 biceps paralysis 400 2 gel. 2 gel. 2 gel. 1 gel. 80 80%
4 T. J. 14 club foot 640 2 gel. 2 gel. 2 gel. 1 gel. 120 81%
5 G. C. 11 genu varum 240 2 gel. 2 gel. 1 gel. 160 33%
6 Y. A. 13 club foot 440 2 gel. 2 gel. 1 gel. 320 27%
7 M. D. 12 spasticity 300 2 gel. 2 gel. 1 gel. 160 47%
8 Y. Z. 3 club foot 320 2 gel. 2 gel. 2 gel. 1 gel. 80 75%
9 M. R. 7 Pott (cyphosis) 160 2 gel. 2 gel. 1 gel. 80 50%
10 M. G. 7 4ceps retraction 910 2 gel. 2 gel. 2 gel. 1 gel. 240 74%
11 S A. 18 burn (skin graft) 520 2 gel. 2 gel. 2 gel. 1 gel. 80 85%
12 C. T. 5 knee tumor 420 2 gel . 2 gel. 1 gel. 0 100%
13 N. K. 6 genu valgum 580 2 gel. 2 gel. 1 gel. 40 93%
14 Y. G. 15 hand tumor 640 2 gel. 2 gel. 1 gel. 40 94%
15 N. E. 1 club foot 360 2 gel. 2 gel. 2 gel. 1 gel. 160 55%
16 D. D 5 club foot 400 2 gel. 2 gel. 2 gel. 1 gel. 160 60%
17 R. P. 13 club foot 620 2 gel. 2 gel. 2 gel. 1 gel. 400 35%
18 K. M. 12 stiff hip 420 2 gel. 2 gel. 2 gel. 1 gel. 480 -14%
19 N. J. 2 genu valgum 320 2 gel. 2 gel. 1 gel. 160 50%
20 K. J. 7 genu valgum 520 2 gel. 2 gel. 1 gel. 400 23%
21 W. I. 2 club foot 400 2 gel. 2 gel. 2 gel. 1 gel. 240 40%
22 Y. Z. 2 club footl 400 2 gel. 2 gel. 2 gel. 1 gel. 240 40%
23 B. R. 14 4ceps retraction 320 2 gel. 2 gel. 2 gel. 1 gel. 80 75%
24 P. Z. 11 burn (skin graft) 240 2 gel. 2 gel. 1 gel. 160 33%
25 O. M. 14 chronic osteitis 480 2 gel. 2 gel. 1 gel. 40 92%

Mean values 432 165 62%
1 day ½ treatment 395 142 64%
2 days ½ treatment 461 183 60%
6 13 years 496 142 71%

3.3. Antinociceptive effect

We noticed a substantial post operative antinociceptive effect. The administration of analgesics (Paracetamol) during 12 to 18 hours after surgery could be significantly reduced. This effect has been described in the literature (3) for other artemisia species like Artemisia vulgaris. It is does not related to artemisinin.

3.4. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects
We did not have the possibility in this study to evaluate the impact of the Artemisia annua administered on the bacterial load in the patients. It is well known that this plant has strong sterilizing properties on faecal Escherichia coli and Streptococci (4). Extracts of the herb with low artemisinin content activate the lymphocytes (personal communication P. Lutgen) and have also a strong anti-inflammatory effect as demonstrated by reduction of the IL-6 and IL-8 secretion. All this may explain the improved health status after surgery (5).

4. Discussion

These results are preliminary results only, based on evaluation of a small series, without control group. However the laboratory tests were performed in the same laboratory, most often by the same technician. Therefore the possible error in the pre and post operative measurements can be considered as similar and negligeable, giving credibility to the results, and making possible some provisional conclusions.
All patients presented with a pre-operative asymptomatic parasitemia; this has been already well documented (6). In our study the aim was not to eradicate the parasites from the blood, but to decrease enough the parasitemia during the first post operative days to avoid any malaria attack, and the treatment was intentionally not extended after the second postoperative day. Nevertheless the efficacy of the Artemisia annua powder which was observed in this study is an argument for expecting a lasting effect if used on a long term period for malaria treatment, as it has been demonstrated with tea preparation (7).
Although 3 years old, the Artemisia annua powder was very effective against Plasmodium falciparum, suggesting that all constituents had stayed stable even after some years. The leaves were kept in a dry place, without special precaution.
In this study the prevention of malaria with capsules of Artemisia annua powder was effective clinically and biologically in almost all cases, allowing a decrease of the parasitemia to the third of the initial value. The decrease was rapidly obtained, as soon as after 36 hours and it was unchanged after 60 hours. An increase of the parasitemia was observed in one case only (patient n° 18), without any clinical manifestation. Possibly in this case the treatment allowed cancellation of a beginning malaria attack.
The amount of powder administered was very low: the quantity of powder present in a capsule n° 1 was about 200 mg, and the quantity of powder present in a capsule n° 0 was about 250 mg. That means that about 400 to 500 mg of Artemisia annua powder was given per day. The powder was obtained from the Luxemburg variety, where artemisinin content is about 0, 1 %, and it may be estimated that about 0, 4 – 0, 5 mg of artemisinin was daily administered. This quantity is lower than the recommended quantity when ACT is used and it is also considerably lower than the quantity measured in one litre of tea: 12 mg in the study of Mueller (8), 94 mg in the study of Räth (9), 40-46 mg in the study of Rocha e Silva (10). Nevertheless in spite of this very low quantity the treatment with Artemisia annua powder was very effective.
Another interesting fact is the same efficacy on the parasitemia whatever the age and thus whatever the weight of the patient: the parasitemia decreased of 60% in children less than 5 years old, of 52% in children 5 to 13 years old, and 71% in patients older than 13 years. This suggests a remarkable efficacy of the powder even at a low dosage. Now increasing the dosage may increase the efficacy and this should be further evaluated. The advantage of the Artemisia annua powder compared to the tea preparation is to favour the supply of all the molecules present in the plant, and especially polysaccharides, essential oils (11) and flavonoids. It has been demonstrated that these molecules increase the artemisinin action (12) and that they also have a direct specific antimalarial action (13,14,15). Recent studies by the Weathers group using P. chabaudi infected rodents showed complete reduction in parasitemia within 30 hrs after oral consumption of a single dose of dry powdered leaves of A. annua (16).
The administration of Artemisia annua powder is easier and apparently more effective than the tea preparation. However the capsules are costly and might not be routinely available in remote areas. In our opinion, capsules are not perfectly fitted for use of Artemisia annua at a large scale. So promoting a local production of Artemisia annua and its administration in tea preparation is still the best method for prevention and treatment of malaria and should be promoted in the poorest countries. Nevertheless another possibility is administration of powder if the plant can be ground with the traditional pestle. The use of capsules as suppositories remains an option in specific conditions, like severe malaria.

Note : During the same surgical session, 5 patients not included in the series (4 adults and one child) presented a malaria attack, occurring in one case despite a prevention using Malarone, in 2 cases without preventive treatment, et in 2 cases persisting despite a standard treatment with ACT during more than 10 days. These 5 patients were treated with capsules at a greater dosage: an initial dose of 3 capsules when starting the treatment, then 4 capsules per day during 7 days. In all 5 cases a rapid relief of the functional troubles and hyperthermia was observed after 24 hours. A dosage of the parasitemia was performed before and during the treatment (after 60 hours) in two cases: in one case (an adult) the Plasmodium falciparum concentration decreased from 1500 to 180 parasites/ml. In the second case (a child) the Plasmodium falciparum concentration, which had increased from 240 to 8400 parasites/ml in 24 hours before starting the treatment, decreased to 80 parasites/ml after two days and half.

References
1. Wan YD, Zang QZ, Wang JS. Studies on the antimalarial action of gelatin capsule of Artemisia annua, Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 1992; 10(4):290-4.
2, Weathers PJ, Arsenault PR, Covello P, McMickle A, Reed D, Teoh KH. Artemisinin production in Artemisia annua – studies in planta and a novel delivery method for treating malaria and other neglected diseases. Phytochem Rev, 2011 June, 10(2), 173-183.
3. Kodipilli K, Ratnasooriya WD, Premakumara S, Udagama PV. An investigation on the antimalarial activity of Artemisia vulgaris leaf extract in rodent malaria model, Int J Green Pharm, 2011, 5, 276-281.
4. Allahdin O, Gothard MC, Biteman O, Foto E, Mabingui J, Lutgen P, Essai de désinfection de l’eau de puits par l’Artemisia annua, Revue Technique Luxembourgeoise, 2008, 3, 165-168.
5. de Magalhaes PM, Dupont I, Schneider YJ. Anti-inflammatory effect by Artemisia annua tea infusion, Food Chemistry, 2012, available on Science Direct
6. Bottius E, Guanzirolli A, Trape JF, Rogier C, Konate L, Druilhe P. Malaria: even more chronic in nature than previously thought; evidence for subpatent parasitaemia detectable by the polymerase chain reaction. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 1996, 90: 15-19.
7. Ogwang PE, Ogwal J O, Kasasa S, Ejobi F, Kabasa D, Obua C. Use of Artemisia annua L. Infusion for Malaria Prevention: Mode of Action and Benefits in a Ugandan Community. British J of Pharm Research, 2011, 1: 124-132.
8. Mueller MS, Karhabomga IB, Hirt HM, Wemakor E. The potential of Artemisia annua L. as a locally produced remedy for malaria in the tropics: agricultural, chemical and clinical aspects. J Ethnopharmacol, 2000, 73: 487-93.
9. Räth K, Taxis K, Walz G, Gleiter CH, Li SM, Heide L. Pharmacokinetic study of artemisinin after oral intake of a traditional preparation of Artemisia annua L. (annual wormwood). Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2004, 70: 128-32.
10. Rocha e Silva LF, Melillo de Magalhães P, Farias Costa MR, Graças Costa Alecrim (das) M, Maia Chaves FC, Freitas Hidalgo (de) A, Pohlit AM, Ribeiro Vieira PP. In vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Welch field isolates to infusions prepared from Artemisia annua L. cultivated in the Brazilian Amazon. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, 2012, 107: 859-866.
11. Seatlholo S.T. The biological activity of essential oil constituents, Dissertation, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2007.
12. Ferreira JFS, Luthria DL, Sasaki T, Heyerick A. Flavonoids from Artemisia annua as antioxidants and their potential synergism with artemisinin against malaria and cancer. Molecules, 2010, 15: 3135-3170.
13. Goulart H R, Kimura E A, Peres V J, Couto A S, Aquino Duarte F A, Katzin A M. Terpenes Arrest Parasite Development and Inhibit Biosynthesis of Isoprenoids in Plasmodium falciparum Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2004, 48: 2502-9.
14. Willcox M L, Burton S, Oyweka R, Namyalo R, Challand S, Lindsey K. Evaluation and pharmacovigilance of projects promoting cultivation and local use of Artemisia annua for malaria. Malaria Journal, 10:84 doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-10-84, 2011.
15. Xie G, Schepetkin IA, Siemsen DW, Kirpotina LN, Wiley JA, Quinn MT. Fractionation and Characterization of Biologically-active Polysaccharides from Artemisia tripartita. Phytochemistry, 2008, 69: 1359–1371.
16. Elfawal MA, Towler MJ, Reich NG, Golenbock DT, Weathers PJ, Rich SM. Dried whole plant Artemisia annua as an antimalarial therapy. PLOS ONE, 2012 in press as of Dec. 20, 2012.

Un “vaccin” africain contre le paludisme: ARTAVOL®.

décembre 4, 2012

Depuis 5 ans les chercheurs du Ministère de la Santé en Ouganda cherchent à exploiter le pouvoir prophylactique des herbes médicinales contre le paludisme. Leurs efforts ont été couronnés de succès et depuis 12 mois on peut trouver dans les pharmacies de ce pays un tel produit qui est le fruit de 3 années de recherches et d’essais cliniques. Pris régulièrement pendant une année il immunise la personne contre le paludisme. Le traitement réduit également chez les adultes porteurs asymptomatiques du plasmodium la fréquence de 60%. Une grande partie de ces résultats ont été publiés dans des journaux scientifiques (peer reviewed papers).
Le produit appelé ARTAVOL® est compose de noyaux d’avocat moulus, d’extraits de citronelle et de feuilles en poudre d’un plante artemisia ne contenant pas d’artemisinine. Les ingrédients majeurs sont des coumarines, des stérols, des triterpènes, des flavonoïdes et des dérivés du lemonol et du citral. Le produit se vend en boîtes de 100gr, quantité suffisante pour six mois, et ressemble à des granules de Nescafé. ARTAVOL® comme boisson ou aliment aide fortement dans la prévention du paludisme, guérit des fièvres, est vermicide et apporte également à l’organisme une dose régulière d’anti-oxydants. Mélangé au lait son goût est le plus agréable, mais il peut également être mélangé à du porridge, du beurre d’arachides, de l’eau ou d’autres aliments.
Son effet prophylactique contre le paludisme est progressif et cumulatif et se manifeste vraiment après 8 semaines de consommation. Mais l’effet peut être acquis plus rapidement en augmentant la dose. L’effet vermicide et anthelminthique se manifeste déjà après 24 heures. Des études de laboratoire sur des rats ont montré que le produit agit en accroissant le nombre de globules blancs, particulièrement des monocytes et des lymphocytes. Les monocytes phagocytent les jeunes parasites de plasmodium avant que ceux par multiplication conduisent à une parasitémie élevée.
Des essais faits sur des souris et des rats n’ont pas permis de mettre en évidence des effets secondaires même à des doses supérieures à 5000mg par kg de poids corporel. Les adultes ayant participé aux essais cliniques ne montraient aucun signe de toxicité ou autre effet secondaire. Nous n’avons pas fait des essais cliniques sur femmes enceintes, mais des essais faits sur des rats en gestation n’ont montré aucun effet tératogène.
Le produit est uniquement destiné à la prévention du paludisme. Le traitement de la maladie même doit se faire sous surveillance médicale avec les remèdes prévus à cet effet.
ARTAVOL® was developed by scientists at Natural Chemotherapeutical Research Laboratory and Makerere University. The R&D was supported by Government of Uganda, through Uganda National Council for Sciences & Technology. For more details please contact Ogwang Patrick Engeu (pe7321@gmail.com). +256-712-491054, +256-779-617612

Vacuna eficaz contra la malaria: ARTAVOL

décembre 4, 2012

Desde hace 5 años un grupo de cientificos en
el Ministerio de la Salud en Uganda está
trabajando en extractos de plantas que podrían
tener un efecto profiláctico contra la malaria.
Desde hace 12 meses hay un producto
disponible en las farmacias de Uganda.
El producto fue liberado para su uso después
de 3 años de ensayos clínicos y comunitarios
demostrando que si se toma de manera regular
durante un año inmuniza a la persona contra
la malaria. También reduce en un 60% los
casos asintómaticos de malaria en la población
adulta.
El producto llamado ARTAVOL® está compuesto por semillas de avocado molidas, de citronela y extractos de hojas secas de Artemisia que no contienen artemisinina. Los principales ingredientes son cumaronas, esteroles y triterpenos, flavonoides, lemonol y derivados cítricos. Se vende en envases de 100 gramos y tiene el aspecto de granos de Nescafé. El ARTAVOL® consumido como una bebida o un suplemento dietético ayuda a la prevención de la malaria, fiebres frecuentes, infestación de gusanos, y también provee al organismo con antioxidantes. Tiene mejor sabor diluido en leche pero también puede añadirse a sopas de avena, agua caliente o en la comida.
En la prevención de la malaria la protección efectiva es acumulativa y se manifiesta completamente a partir de la 8ª semana de consumo, aunque esto puede lograrse más rápido si se ingiere todos los días. Los efectos mortales sobre los gusanos ocurren dentro de las 24 horas. ARTAVOL estimula la produccion de células blancas en la sangre (limfocitos, monocitos). Los últimos bloquean la multiplicación de los parásitos jovenes en el cuerpo antes de que ellos maduren para causar enfermedades.
Los ensayos sobre ratas y ratones no mostraron efectos secundarios aun a dosis mayores de 5000 mg/kg de peso corporal. Los participantes del estudio que consumieron ARTAVOL® todas las semanas durante 12 meses no mostraron efectos secundarios o toxicidad. La seguridad del ARTAVOL® durante el embarazo no fue estudiado en los humanos; sin embargo los estudios realizados sobre ratas preñadas en laboratorio no mostraron efectos teratogénicos.
El producto debería ser usado solamente para la prevención de la malaria, no para su tratamiento. Para tratamiento debe usarse la asistencia de un médico o un hospital.
ARTAVOL® fue desarrollado por científicos en el Laboratorio de Investigación de Quimioterapia Natural y en la Universidad Makerere. La R&D fue apoyada por el Gobierno de Uganda a través del Consejo Nacional de Ciencias y Tecnología de Uganda. Para mayores detalles contactar a Ogwang Patrick Engeu (pe7321@gmail.com, +256-712-491054, +256-779-617612.

A “vaccine“against malaria from Africa: ARTAVOL®.

décembre 3, 2012

A “vaccine“against malaria from Africa: ARTAVOL®.

Since 5 years a group of scientists at the Ministry of Health of Uganda is working on plant extracts which might have a prophylactic effect against malaria. Since 12 months a product is available in the pharmacies of Uganda. The product has been released after clinical and community trials over 3 years which have demonstrated that if taken regularly during one year it renders a person immune against malaria. It also reduced the asymptomatic malaria cases in an adult population by 60%.
The product called ARTAVOL® is composed of ground kernels of avocado, extracts of lemon grass and extracts of dried artemisia herb which does not contain artemisinin. Major ingredients are coumarins, sterols and triterpenes, flavonoids, lemonol and citral derivatives. It is sold in tins of 100 gr and has the appearance of Nescafé granules. ARTAVOL® consumed as a beverage or as functional food helps in prevention of malaria, frequent fevers, worm infestation and also provides the body with antioxidants. It tastes best in milk but can also be added to porridge, hot water or food.
In malaria prevention, effective protection is cumulative and becomes fully manifest from 8th week of consumption although this can be achieved faster if taken every day. The worm killing effects occur within 24 hours and antioxidant effects are cumulative. Studies in laboratory rats and humans indicated the product works by blocking parasite multiplication in the body and stimulating white blood cells especially monocytes and lymphocytes. Monocytes then remove young malaria parasites from the blood before they mature to cause disease.
Test in mice and rats showed no side effects even at doses greater than 5000 mg/kg body weight. Study participants who consumed ARTAVOL® every week for 12 months showed no side effects or toxicity. ARTAVOL® safety in pregnancy has not been studied in humans; however studies in pregnant laboratory rats showed no teratogenic effects.
The product should be used for malaria prevention only, not treatment. For treatment use the assistance of a medical doctor or hospital.
ARTAVOL® was developed by scientists at Natural Chemotherapeutical Research Laboratory and Makerere University. The R&D was supported by Government of Uganda, through Uganda National Council for Sciences & Technology. For more details please contact Ogwang Patrick Engeu (pe7321@gmail.com), +256-712-491054, +256-779-617612.